Chapter 9：Social Affairs 英国社会
I. Health and Social Services
1. Britain is regarded as a welfare state. This system is funded out of national insurance contributions and taxation. In Britain the term applies mainly to the National Health Service (NHS), national insurance and social security.
2. The National Health Service provides for every resident, regardless of income, a full range of medical services. The service was established in the U.K. in 1948. Over 82 per cent of the cost of the health service in Great Britain id funded out of general taxation. The rest is met from: (1) the NHS element of National Insurance contributions; (2) charges towards the cost of certain items such as drugs prescribed by family doctors, and general dental treatment; (3) other receipts, including land sales and the proceeds of income generation schemes.
3. There are proportional charges for most types of HNS dental treatment, including examinations. Sight test are free to children. No one is liable to be charged by the National Health Service for treatment in an accident, emergency or for an infectious disease. Central government is directly responsible for the NHS, which is administered by a range of local health authorities and health boards throughout the U..
4. The family health services are those given to patients by doctors, dentists, opticians and pharmacists. In order to obtain the benefits of the NHS a person must normally be registered on the list of a general practitioner (GP, sometimes knows as a “family doctor”).
5. A full range of hospital services is provided by district general hospital. There are also specialist hospital or units for children, people suffering from mental illness, those with learning disabilities, and elderly people, and for the treatment of specific diseases.
6. The National Health Service is the largest single employer of labour in the U.K. NHS has suffered from underfunding in recent decades, as a result of which many better-off people have been turning to private medical health care.
7. Personal social services in Britain assist elderly people, disabled people, people with learning disabilities or mental illness, children, and families facing special problems. These statutory service are provided by local government social services authorities.
II. social Security
1. The social security system is designed to secure a basic standard of living for people in financial need. Nearly a third of government expenditure is devoted to the social security programme which provides financial help for people who are elderly, sick, disabled, unemployed, widowed, bringing up children or on very low incomes.
2. Administration in Great Britain is handled by separate executive agencies of the Department of Social Security. In Northern Ireland by the Social Security Agency.
3. contributory social security benefits, it include:( 1) retirement pension; (2) unemployment pension; (3) sickness and invalidity benefit and (4) Maternity allowance and widows’s benefits.
4. non-contributory social security benefits, it include: (1) war pensions;(2) industrial injuries disablement benefit;(3) child benefit and (4) family credit.
1. Everyone in Britain has the right to religious freedom with out interference from the community or the State. He may change his religion at will may manifest his faith in teaching, worship and observance. Except that the Lord Chancellor may be a Roman Catholic, public offices are open without distinction to members of all churches or none.
2. Established churches
There are two established church in Britain: in England the church of England and Scotland the Church of England.
3. Church of England is uniquely related to the Crown in that the Sovereign must be a member of that Church and as “Defender of the Faith”. The Church is also linked with the State through the House of loads. The church of England is not free to change its form of worship, as laid down in the Book of Common Prayer without the consent of Parliament.
4. The government of the Church of Scotland is Presbyterian, that is, government by ministers and elders, all of whom are ordained to office. The Monarch is normally represented at the general assembly by the Lord High Commissioner.
5. Unestablished churches
There are include: the Anglican Churches(圣公会)，the Free Churches(自由教)，the Roman Catholic Church（罗马天主教）。
IV. Festival and Public Holidays
The Christian festival of the year and Christmas, Easter, and Whit Sunday.